Key performance indicators

Effectiveness indicators

Key performance indicators

Reporting of key performance indicators enables senior management to assess and monitor the extent to which we achieve our government-desired outcome, and ensures we are accountable to the community for our performance.

Government goal

Safe, strong and fair communities: Developing healthy and resilient communities

Desired outcome

School students across Western Australia have access to high quality education

Services

1. Public primary education
2. Public secondary education
3. Regulation and non-government sector assistance
4. Support to the School Curriculum and Standards Authority

This section presents effectiveness indicators that show how well we met our desired outcome and efficiency indicators that show how efficiently we delivered our 4 services in 2021–22. The indicators are as per our approved outcome-based management (OBM) framework.

Supplementary information relating to our key performance indicators in the appendices is not audited by the Office of the Auditor General.

 


Effectiveness indicators

Outcome: School students across Western Australia have access to high quality education

We aim to provide everyone aged 4 to 17 years (at 30 June) in Western Australia with access to education through the public school system, irrespective of their location, circumstances and whether that provision is taken up or not.

Two approaches are used to measure how well we achieve this aim:

  • The rate of participation in education gives an indication of the extent to which school‑aged Western Australian residents are engaged in some form of education during the senior secondary years. The rate includes data spanning the main forms of education, including public and non‑government schools, vocational education and training, and university.
  • The apparent retention rate is the second measure of our success in providing access to education through the public system. Prior to 2020, the apparent retention rate was from Year 8 to Year 12. From 2020, it is from Year 7 to Year 12. This is because the 2020 Year 12 cohort was the first cohort to commence secondary school in Year 7.

Our other indicators provide measures of the extent to which students achieve high standards of learning:

  • The WACE achievement rate shows the percentage of Year 12 public school students who achieved the Western Australian Certificate of Education (WACE) qualification, the criterion for overall success in school in WA.
  • Student achievement prior to Year 12 is shown using indicators that measure the percentage of public school students in Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 who achieve proficiency standards in national reading and numeracy tests.

This rate shows the proportion of the state’s estimated resident population of 15, 16 and 17‑year‑olds who are participating in some form of education.

These ages align to Years 10, 11 and 12. The rate includes young people of these ages who either:

  • were enrolled in public or non-government schools at the Semester 2 student census
  • attended vocational education and training during the year
  • attended university during the year.

To ensure students are only counted once, students attending both school and vocational education and training are only counted in the school data.

Participation rates for 2017 to 2021 are in Table 20 with rates by gender in Appendix 3.

The target in the 2021–22 Budget Papers was based on the higher of the preliminary actual for 2019 and the estimated actual for 2020, rounded up to the next integer, using the latest available data at the time of the 2021–22 State Budget.

Table 20: Participation rate (%) of persons aged 15 to 17 years engaged in some form of education 2017 to 2021(a)(b)(c)

2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Target for 2021–22
96.0 97.7 97.0 96.1 95.5 100

(a) Based on Australian Bureau of Statistics preliminary estimates of resident population (age at 30 June) and data collected from public and non-government schools (Semester 2 student census, age at 1 July), universities (age at 30 June), and vocational education and training (VET) providers (age at 30 June).
(b) University enrolment data for 2021 is an estimate based on 2020 university enrolment data and an annual compound growth factor calculated from university enrolment data across the previous 4 years.
(c) Revised figures for 2017 to 2020 due to updated data for 2020 university and VET enrolments, and estimates of resident population in 2017 to 2020. Figures published in our 2020–21 annual report were 2017: 96.2%, 2018: 98.1%, 2019: 97.8%, and 2020: 99.4%.

Source: System and School Performance, using data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, Department of Training and Workforce Development and the Australian Government Department of Education

The extent to which students continue to participate in public school education is indicated by the apparent secondary retention rate. From 2020, this is the number of full-time students in Year 12 expressed as a percentage of the number of full-time students who enrolled in Year 7 five years earlier. Prior to 2020, the retention rate was based on the number of full-time students who enrolled in Year 8 four years earlier (the start of secondary school at that time). Retention rates for 2017 to 2021 are in Table 21 with rates by subgroup in Appendix 3.

The apparent retention rate does not account for net changes to the school population caused by interstate and overseas migration, or students moving between school sectors.

The target in the 2021–22 Budget Papers was based on the higher of the 2 most recent years’ performance at that time (2019 Year 8 to Year 12, and 2020 Year 7 to Year 12), rounded up to the next integer.

Table 21: Apparent secondary retention rate (%) of public school students 2017 to 2021(a)(b)(c)

2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Target for 2021–22
80.1 81.4 81.6 81.5 80.4 82

(a) Excludes Canning College and Tuart College students, part-time and international students, and mature-aged students at senior campuses.
(b) Calculated using the number of students in the Semester 2 student census.
(c) Prior to 2020, the apparent retention rate was from Year 8 to Year 12. From 2020, the apparent retention rate is from Year 7 to Year 12. This change is because the 2020 Year 12 cohort was the first cohort to commence secondary school in Year 7.

Source: System and School Performance

To achieve the Western Australian Certificate of Education (WACE) qualification, students must meet criteria established by the School Curriculum and Standards Authority. For 2021, students had to:

  • demonstrate the Authority’s minimum standards of literacy and numeracy
  • complete at least 20 units (or equivalent) that met the breadth and depth of study requirements
  • complete one of the following:
    • at least 4 Year 12 Australian Tertiary Admission Rank (ATAR) courses
    • at least 5 Year 12 General courses (or a combination of General and up to 3 Year 12 ATAR courses) or equivalent
    • a certificate II (or higher) vocational education and training (VET) qualification in combination with ATAR, General or Foundation courses
  • achieve a grade of C or better in 14 course units (or equivalent) of which at least 6 must be completed in Year 12.

The WACE achievement rate shows the percentage of Year 12 students enrolled in a public school in Semester 2 who achieved the WACE qualification that same year. The rates for 2017 to 2021 are in Table 22 with further breakdowns in Appendix 3.

The target in the 2021–22 Budget Papers was based on the higher of the 2 most recent years’ performance at that time (2019 and 2020), rounded up to the next integer.

Table 22: WACE achievement rate (%) of Year 12 public school students 2017 to 2021(a)(b)

2017 2018(c) 2019 2020 2021 Target for 2021–22
79.5 80.5 80.7 81.7 81.1 82

(a) Year 12 full-time students in the Semester 2 student census.
(b) Year 12 WACE achievement data from the School Curriculum and Standards Authority and taken at a point in time. Data may be updated after this time for a variety of reasons such as students successfully appealing their results.
(c) A few registered training organisations did not complete VET certification for some public school students in time to be included in the 2018 data. This may have affected the data reported for 2018.

Source: System and School Performance

The National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) is conducted annually across all states and territories by the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority.

Full cohorts of Year 3, 5, 7 and 9 students across the country undertake common tests in May.

This program provides valuable information for parents on their children’s achievements as well as useful information at the school level and Australia‑wide. The national and state/territory results are reported in the national NAPLAN report.

The key performance indicators for reading and numeracy are defined as the proportion of public school students in Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 achieving proficiency standards in NAPLAN Reading and Numeracy.

We set the proficiency standards based on provisional work conducted nationally. They represent challenging but reasonable reading and numeracy achievement expectations for a typical student in Years 3, 5, 7 or 9. Proficiency indicates students are on track to meet the curriculum expectations for the year level and assessment area. Proficiency standards are more challenging to achieve than national minimum standards and we consider them to be better indicators of the quality of students’ reading and numeracy skills.

The 2020 NAPLAN assessments were cancelled nationally due to COVID-19. The target in the 2021–22 Budget Papers was based on the 2019 performance, rounded up to the next integer.

Results for WA public school students for 2017 to 2021 are in Table 23. Further results are summarised in Appendix 2.

Refer to our website for WA NAPLAN public school performance reports.

Table 23: Percentage of Western Australian public school Year 3, 5, 7 and 9 students achieving proficiency standards in NAPLAN Reading and Numeracy, 2017 to 2021(a)(b)

  Assessment 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Target for 2021–22
Year 3 Reading
Numeracy
67.3
67.6
70.0
69.2
68.8
68.8
n/a
n/a
68.6
65.9
69
69
Year 5 Reading
Numeracy
65.0
64.5
68.4
66.3
70.2
66.1
n/a
n/a
71.3
66.2
71
67
Year 7 Reading
Numeracy
62.6
61.1
64.3
62.1
67.3
64.1
n/a
n/a
64.3
61.9
68
65
Year 9 Reading
Numeracy
64.3
65.3
71.1
70.5
69.8
67.8
n/a
n/a
69.3
70.1
70
68

(a) From 2018 NAPLAN began transitioning from pen and paper to online assessments.
(b) 2020 NAPLAN assessments were cancelled due to COVID-19. Targets in the 2021–22 Budget Papers were based only on the 2019 performance, rounded up to the next integer.

Source: System and School Performance

Efficiency indicators


Efficiency indicators

Efficiency indicators show how efficiently we delivered our 4 services in 2021–22. The indicators have been calculated based on costs of services excluding any non‑cash revaluation decrement, extraordinary asset write-offs and any other costs that are not related to the approved efficiency indicators.

Service 1: Public primary education

This service provides access to education in public schools for persons aged generally from 4 years and 6 months to 11 years and 6 months.

Cost per student full-time equivalents of public primary education

This indicator is the total cost of services for primary education in public schools divided by the average full-time equivalent (FTE) of public school primary students across the 2 semesters of the financial year.

The 2021–22 result is higher than 2020–21 primarily due to:

  • An increase in employee benefits expense due to:
    • ­salary cost growth in accordance with the state government’s public sector wages policy
    • ­additional teachers and education assistants to meet the growing demand in schools
    • ­additional staff relating to election commitments for school psychologists, specialised career practitioners and the expansion of the Alternative Learning Settings
    • ­additional relief employees to backfill staff impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • An increase in depreciation expense due to higher building valuations resulting from the restatement of project and professional fees related to buildings and land improvements.

The 2021–22 result is higher than the 2021–22 budget target primarily due to approved adjustments to the Department’s budget during 2021–22. This included:

  • additional funding allocated to continue enhanced cleaning protocols in accordance with the Chief Health Officer’s advice and maintain cleaning and personal protective equipment supplies
  • an adjustment to the approved leave liability cap
  • additional funding for the provision of universal access to affordable, quality preschool programs to all children under the Preschool Reform Agreement
  • additional funding to support enhanced ventilation at all public schools in response to the COVID-19 pandemic
  • additional funding for depreciation expense due to higher building valuations resulting from the restatement of project and professional fees for buildings and land improvements.

Table 24: Cost ($) per full-time equivalent student of public primary education 2017–18 to 2021–22(a)

2017–18(b) 2018–19 2019–20(c) 2020–21 2021–22 Target for 2021–22
15,155 15,242 16,197 16,816 17,374 16,688

(a) Figures are not adjusted for inflation.
(b) The 2017–18 actual varies from what was published in our 2017–18 annual report due to a change in the calculation methodology as a result of the Department’s revised OBM reporting structure.
(c) The 2019–20 actual varies from what was published in our 2019–20 annual report due to a change in accounting policy to expense library collections previously recorded as assets.

Source: Education Business Services

Service 2: Public secondary education

This service provides access to education in public schools for persons aged generally from 11 years and 6 months. It includes the provision of accommodation, care and services for students from rural and remote areas who have to board away from home to attend a public school.

Cost per student full-time equivalents of public secondary education

This indicator is the total cost of services for secondary education in public schools divided by the average full-time equivalent (FTE) of public school secondary students across the 2 semesters of the financial year.

The 2021–22 result is higher than 2020–21 primarily due to:

  • An increase in employee benefits expense due to:
    • salary cost growth in accordance with the state government’s public sector wages policy
    • additional teachers and education assistants to meet the growing demand in schools
    • additional staff relating to election commitments for school psychologists, specialised career practitioners and the expansion of the Alternative Learning Settings
    • additional relief employees to backfill staff impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • An increase in depreciation expense due to higher building valuations resulting from the restatement of project and professional fees related to buildings and land improvements. 

The 2021–22 result is higher than the 2021–22 budget target primarily due to approved adjustments to the Department’s budget during 2021–22. This included:

  • additional funding allocated to continue enhanced cleaning protocols in accordance with the Chief Health Officer’s advice and maintain cleaning and personal protective equipment supplies
  • an adjustment to the approved leave liability cap
  • additional funding to support enhanced ventilation at all public schools in response to the COVID-19 pandemic
  • additional funding for depreciation expense due to higher building valuations resulting from the restatement of project and professional fees for buildings and land improvements.

Table 25: Cost ($) per full-time equivalent student of public secondary education 2017–18 to 2021–22(a)

2017–18(b) 2018–19 2019–20(c) 2020–21 2021–22 Target for 2021–22
18,383 18,488 19,080 19,500 20,209 19,639

(a) Figures are not adjusted for inflation.
(b) The 2017–18 actual varies from what was published in our 2017–18 annual report due to a change in the calculation methodology as a result of the Department’s revised OBM reporting structure.
(c) The 2019–20 actual varies from what was published in our 2019–20 annual report due to a change in accounting policy to expense library collections previously recorded as assets.

Source: Education Business Services

Service 3: Regulation and non-government sector assistance

This service provides regulatory and assistance services, as required by legislation or government policy, to support provision of quality services by non‑government schools, universities and teachers across all Western Australian schools. It also includes the provision of accommodation, care and services for students from rural and remote areas who have to board away from home to attend a non-government school.

Cost of non-government school regulatory services per non-government school

This indicator shows the cost to the Department of regulatory services provided for non-government schools divided by the number of Independent non‑government schools.

The 2021–22 result is lower than the 2021–22 budget target due to minor efficiencies being achieved through modified work practices in pandemic settings, and lower than expected amortisation expense as software assets became fully depreciated during the year.

Table 26: Cost ($) of non-government school regulatory services per non-government school 2017–18 to 2021–22(a)(b)

2017–18 2018–19 2019–20 2020–21 2021–22 Target for 2021–22
7,407 6,747 7,316 6,330 6,116 7,470

(a) Figures are not adjusted for inflation.
(b) The calculation of this indicator excludes expenditure not relating to regulatory services.

Source: Education Business Services

 

Cost of teacher regulatory services per teacher

This indicator is the cost to the Department of providing secretariat support to the Teacher Registration Board of Western Australia divided by the number of registered teachers at 30 June.

The 2021–22 result is lower than the 2021–22 budget target primarily due to lower than expected operational costs during the year, combined with higher than expected number of registered teachers.

Table 27: Cost ($) of teacher regulatory services per teacher 2017–18 to 2021–22(a)(b)

2017–18 2018–19 2019–20 2020–21 2021–22 Target for 2021–22
95 110 132 109 103 118

(a) Figures are not adjusted for inflation.
(b) The calculation of this indicator excludes expenditure not relating to regulatory services.

Source: Education Business Services

Service 4: Support to the School Curriculum and Standards Authority

This service provides resources to the School Curriculum and Standards Authority to assist it to perform its statutory functions under the School Curriculum and Standards Authority Act 1997 (WA).

Cost per student of support to the School Curriculum and Standards Authority

This indicator shows the cost to the Department of providing secretariat services to the Authority divided by the average full-time equivalent of all students across the 2 semesters of the financial year.

The 2021–22 result is higher than 2020–21 primarily due to:

  • An increase in employee benefits expense due to increased staffing levels to support the development and management of new languages (Hindi, Korean and Tamil) into the Western Australian curriculum.
  • An increase in expenditure relating to examination logistics associated with continued COVID-19 arrangements, particularly for the 2021 Australian Tertiary Admission Rank (ATAR) examinations.

Table 28: Cost ($) per student of support to the School Curriculum and Standards Authority 2017–18 to 2021–22(a)

2017–18 2018–19 2019–20 2020–21(b) 2021–22 Target for 2021–22
76 77 73 77 80 81

(a) Figures are not adjusted for inflation.
(b) The 2020–21 actual varies from what was published in our 2020–21 annual report due to a refinement in the calculation methodology for salary on-costs resulting in a reduction in employee benefits expense.

Source: Education Business Services